Gastric balloon in Turkey, Istanbul ❤️ Price of gastric balloon in Turkey
  • RUS
  • UKR
  • ENG
  • KZ
  • ESP
Medical specialties
Oncology
Doctors
  • RUS
  • UKR
  • ENG
  • KZ
  • ESP
Medical specialties
Oncology
Doctors
  • RUS
  • UKR
  • ENG
  • KZ
  • ESP

Gastric balloon in Turkey

  • Below you will find a price ranking of the best bariatric clinics and doctors for gastric balloon procedure in Turkey.
  • The clinics are selected based on the effectiveness of treatment, the qualifications of doctors, the ratio of price and quality, the level of service, and the equipment producibility.
  • We personally checked these clinics and can recommend them to our patients.

Best Doctors for Intragastric balloon in Turkey

Necdet Derici
General Surgery, Obesity and Diabetes Surgery
Work experience: over 25 years
Achievements:

He specialized in:

  • Endocrine Surgery,
  • Laparoscopic Surgery (Laparoscopic Obesity, Colon Surgery, Stomach Surgery, Hernia Surgery, Appendectomy, Hiatus Hernia, cholecystectomy),
  • Gastrointestinal Surgery (Stomach Cancer and Ulcers, Colon Cancers, Bile duct Surgery),
  • Endoscopy.

He graduated from Istanbul University, Faculty of Medicine in 1995. Between 1995 and 1999, he worked as an assistant doctor at Istanbul Training and Research Hospital.
Нe joined Istanbul Training and Research Hospital as a General Surgery Specialist and worked from 2000 to 2009.

In 2015, He worked with Dr. Bruno Dillemans on Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass in Belgium.

In 2017, He worked with Dr. Phillipe Topart ve Dr Guillaume Becouarn on Obesity Surgery and Laparoscopy.

Membership Associations:

  • Turkish Surgery Association
  • Laparoscopic Surgery Association
  • Endocrine Surgery Association
  • Bakırköy Businessmen Association
  • International Society of Obesity and Bariatric Surgery (IFSO)
Contact doctor
Yahya Ozel
Surgeon, Bariatric surgeon
Work experience: over 30 years
Achievements:

Dr Yahya Ozel was born at 1966. He is graduated from Istanbul University, Faculty of Medicine at the year of 1990 and completed his residency again at the same University as Senior Gastroenterologist and General Surgeon.

Dr Yahya is specialised on Bariatric Surgeries and he is performing weight loss surgeries over than 20 years. His most common surgeries are Sleeve Gastrectomy, Gastric By-Pass, Gastric Ballons and Gastric Botox applications.

Languages: English, Turkish

Membership&Associations:

  • Turkish Surgical Association;
  • Turkish Hepato-Pancreatobiliar Association;
  • National Trauma and Emergency Association;
  • Istanbul Surgical Association;
  • Dialog at Endocrinology Association;
  • Battle with Obesity Association;
  • Turkish Obesity Surgery Association TOSS.

Certificates:

  • Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Division, Artificial Organ and Transplantation;
  • Division, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo-Japan in 2008;
  • Turkish Surgical Association of Endoscopy Certificate;
  • Inonu University Liver Transplantation Instution, Liver Transplant Certification (2013 – 2014);
  • Inonu University Organ Transplantation Instution, Kidney Transplantation Certificate, (2013 – 2014).
Contact doctor
Burcin Batman
surgeon
Work experience: over 16 years
Achievements:

Burcin Batman is an associate professor who has studied and worked in the field of medicine, including obesity and metabolic surgery, colorectal surgery, endocrine surgery, and laparoscopy for inguinal and umbilical hernias.

Education and work experience:

  • Firat University Faculty of Medicine;
  • Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine;
  • Mus Bulanik State Hospital;
  • LIV Hospital.

Membership in organizations:

  • Turkish Surgery Association (TSA);
  • Turkish Obesity Surgery Society (TOSS);
  • World Obesity Association, International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity (IFSO);
  • Society of Endocrine Surgery (ECD);
  • National Society for Endoscopic Laparoscopic Surgery.
Contact doctor
Muhammed Zubeyr Ucuncu
surgeon
Work experience: over 10 years
Achievements:

Medical Interests:

  • Breast and Endocrine Diseases,
  • Obesity Surgery,
  • Laparoscopic Surgery,
  • Oncological Surgery,
  • Endoscopic procedures

Education:

  • 2002-2008 Istanbul University, Faculty of Medicine

Specialization Training:

  • 2008-2013 Istanbul University, Faculty of Medicine

Worked Institutions:

  • 2016- ongoing. Istanbul Gelisim University Health Sciences Institute Asst. Associate Professor. 
  • 2014-2016 State Service Obligation Ministry of Health, Public Hospitals Association Istanbul, Fatih Region, Arnavutköy State Hospital
  • 2017-2019 Istanbul Florence Nightingale Hospital, Breast Health Center
  • 2019-2021 Private Derindere Hospital
Contact doctor

Photos before and after Intragastric Balloon in Turkey

Gastric balloon

Gastric Ballon

Gastric Ballon

Gastric Ballon

Gastric Ballon

Best clinics for Intragastric balloon procedure in Turkey

Patient reviews
Send review
5/5
Rating:
Diagnosis: Fatness

Support staff/surgeon/nutritionist/nurses – all were excellent. The hospital exceeded all expectations. Very good organization. The meeting at the airport and the transfer were stress-free, and the coordinators were always at hand.

Good care, there were no special problems!

I recommend this company for gastric balloon installation in Turkey.


26/08/2022
5/5
Rating:
Diagnosis: Overweight

They did everything very professionally, there are no complaints, I highly recommend the gastric balloon procedure to everyone. The result is very good!


27/05/2022
5/5
Rating:
Diagnosis: Overweight

5 star service! Everything went quickly. In 5 months I lost 30 kilograms. I am happy I had the gastric balloon procedure done.


07/04/2022
5/5
Rating:
Diagnosis: Fatness

I really enjoyed my time at the Hermes clinic, first as a companion (traveled with my sister who was also overweight and had gastric balloon procedure at this clinic) and then as a patient. Looking at the result of my sister, I also decided to get rid of excess weight in the same way. Moreover, the doctors made a very good impression. Half a year has already passed (the balloon was placed for a year), and I lost 25 kilograms (my sister placed it for half a year and lost 32 kilos). We are very pleased with the results.


15/01/2022
Send review
Additional services
Transfer from / to the airport
Help with visa
Personal assistant
Wi-Fi Internet
Apartments and avia tickets booking
Translator
Send request to clinic

we will contact you within 15 minutes

  • Canada (+1)
  • United States (+1)
  • Russia (+7)
  • Kazakhstan (+7)
  • Egypt (+20)
  • South Africa (+27)
  • Greece (+30)
  • Netherlands (+31)
  • Belgium (+32)
  • France (+33)
  • Spain (+34)
  • Hungary (+36)
  • Italy (+39)
  • Romania (+40)
  • Switzerland (+41)
  • Austria (+43)
  • United Kingdom (+44)
  • Denmark (+45)
  • Sweden (+46)
  • Svalbard and Jan Mayen (+47)
  • Norway (+47)
  • Poland (+48)
  • Germany (+49)
  • Peru (+51)
  • Mexico (+52)
  • Cuba (+53)
  • Argentina (+54)
  • Brazil (+55)
  • Chile (+56)
  • Colombia (+57)
  • Venezuela (+58)
  • Malaysia (+60)
  • Christmas Island (+61)
  • Cocos Islands (+61)
  • Australia (+61)
  • Indonesia (+62)
  • Philippines (+63)
  • Pitcairn (+64)
  • New Zealand (+64)
  • Singapore (+65)
  • Thailand (+66)
  • Japan (+81)
  • South Korea (+82)
  • Vietnam (+84)
  • China (+86)
  • Turkey (+90)
  • India (+91)
  • Pakistan (+92)
  • Afghanistan (+93)
  • Sri Lanka (+94)
  • Myanmar (+95)
  • Iran (+98)
  • South Sudan (+211)
  • Morocco (+212)
  • Western Sahara (+212)
  • Algeria (+213)
  • Tunisia (+216)
  • Libya (+218)
  • Gambia (+220)
  • Senegal (+221)
  • Mauritania (+222)
  • Mali (+223)
  • Guinea (+224)
  • Ivory Coast (+225)
  • Burkina Faso (+226)
  • Niger (+227)
  • Togo (+228)
  • Benin (+229)
  • Mauritius (+230)
  • Liberia (+231)
  • Sierra Leone (+232)
  • Ghana (+233)
  • Nigeria (+234)
  • Chad (+235)
  • Central African Republic (+236)
  • Cameroon (+237)
  • Cape Verde (+238)
  • Sao Tome and Principe (+239)
  • Equatorial Guinea (+240)
  • Gabon (+241)
  • Republic of the Congo (+242)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (+243)
  • Angola (+244)
  • Guinea-Bissau (+245)
  • British Indian Ocean Territory (+246)
  • Seychelles (+248)
  • Sudan (+249)
  • Rwanda (+250)
  • Ethiopia (+251)
  • Somalia (+252)
  • Djibouti (+253)
  • Kenya (+254)
  • Tanzania (+255)
  • Uganda (+256)
  • Burundi (+257)
  • Mozambique (+258)
  • Zambia (+260)
  • Madagascar (+261)
  • Reunion (+262)
  • Mayotte (+262)
  • Zimbabwe (+263)
  • Namibia (+264)
  • Malawi (+265)
  • Lesotho (+266)
  • Botswana (+267)
  • Swaziland (+268)
  • Comoros (+269)
  • Saint Helena (+290)
  • Eritrea (+291)
  • Aruba (+297)
  • Faroe Islands (+298)
  • Greenland (+299)
  • Gibraltar (+350)
  • Portugal (+351)
  • Luxembourg (+352)
  • Ireland (+353)
  • Iceland (+354)
  • Albania (+355)
  • Malta (+356)
  • Cyprus (+357)
  • Finland (+358)
  • Bulgaria (+359)
  • Lithuania (+370)
  • Latvia (+371)
  • Estonia (+372)
  • Moldova (+373)
  • Armenia (+374)
  • Belarus (+375)
  • Andorra (+376)
  • Monaco (+377)
  • San Marino (+378)
  • Vatican (+379)
  • Ukraine (+380)
  • Serbia (+381)
  • Montenegro (+382)
  • Kosovo (+383)
  • Croatia (+385)
  • Slovenia (+386)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (+387)
  • Macedonia (+389)
  • Czech Republic (+420)
  • Slovakia (+421)
  • Liechtenstein (+423)
  • Falkland Islands (+500)
  • Belize (+501)
  • Guatemala (+502)
  • El Salvador (+503)
  • Honduras (+504)
  • Nicaragua (+505)
  • Costa Rica (+506)
  • Panama (+507)
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon (+508)
  • Haiti (+509)
  • Saint Barthelemy (+590)
  • Saint Martin (+590)
  • Bolivia (+591)
  • Guyana (+592)
  • Ecuador (+593)
  • Paraguay (+595)
  • Suriname (+597)
  • Uruguay (+598)
  • Curacao (+599)
  • Netherlands Antilles (+599)
  • East Timor (+670)
  • Antarctica (+672)
  • Brunei (+673)
  • Nauru (+674)
  • Papua New Guinea (+675)
  • Tonga (+676)
  • Solomon Islands (+677)
  • Vanuatu (+678)
  • Fiji (+679)
  • Palau (+680)
  • Wallis and Futuna (+681)
  • Cook Islands (+682)
  • Niue (+683)
  • Samoa (+685)
  • Kiribati (+686)
  • New Caledonia (+687)
  • Tuvalu (+688)
  • French Polynesia (+689)
  • Tokelau (+690)
  • Micronesia (+691)
  • Marshall Islands (+692)
  • North Korea (+850)
  • Hong Kong (+852)
  • Macau (+853)
  • Cambodia (+855)
  • Laos (+856)
  • Bangladesh (+880)
  • Taiwan (+886)
  • Maldives (+960)
  • Lebanon (+961)
  • Jordan (+962)
  • Syria (+963)
  • Iraq (+964)
  • Kuwait (+965)
  • Saudi Arabia (+966)
  • Yemen (+967)
  • Oman (+968)
  • Palestine (+970)
  • United Arab Emirates (+971)
  • Israel (+972)
  • Bahrain (+973)
  • Qatar (+974)
  • Bhutan (+975)
  • Mongolia (+976)
  • Nepal (+977)
  • Tajikistan (+992)
  • Turkmenistan (+993)
  • Azerbaijan (+994)
  • Georgia (+995)
  • Kyrgyzstan (+996)
  • Uzbekistan (+998)
  • Bahamas (+1242)
  • Barbados (+1246)
  • Anguilla (+1264)
  • Antigua and Barbuda (+1268)
  • British Virgin Islands (+1284)
  • U.S. Virgin Islands (+1340)
  • Cayman Islands (+1345)
  • Bermuda (+1441)
  • Grenada (+1473)
  • Turks and Caicos Islands (+1649)
  • Montserrat (+1664)
  • Northern Mariana Islands (+1670)
  • Guam (+1671)
  • American Samoa (+1684)
  • Sint Maarten (+1721)
  • Saint Lucia (+1758)
  • Dominica (+1767)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (+1784)
  • Puerto Rico (+1787, 1-939)
  • Dominican Republic (+1809, 1-829, 1-849)
  • Trinidad and Tobago (+1868)
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis (+1869)
  • Jamaica (+1876)
  • Guernsey (+441481)
  • Jersey (+441534)
  • Isle of Man (+441624)

The program of intragastric ballooning in Turkey

  • Hospitalization day: None
  • Duration of stay in Turkey: 2 days
  • Recovery period: None
  • 1st day : Arrival to Istanbul and examinations
  • 2nd day: Procedure under sedation
  • 3rd day: Returning home
Intragastric balloon in Turkey: effective weight loss without surgery

An intragastric balloon in Turkey is a good solution for patients who try to lose weight with the help of diet and exercise to no avail. It is a safe bariatric surgery in Turkey that thousands of patients can benefit from and improve their health.

The cost of installing an intragastric balloon in Turkey is lower than in hospitals in Europe and Israel with a similar high level of quality. Reviews from people who have had a gastric balloon installed in Turkey are positive.

Intragastric balloon in Turkey: basic information

Gastric ballooning in TurkeyIntragastric ballooning is an effective minimally invasive surgery procedure that can be a temporary solution for overweight patients.

The intragastric system includes:

  • a soft pouch that will be located in the stomach;
  • a tube that is attached to the bag and is necessary for its installation;
  • filling system, sterile saline solution, or gas.

Intragastric balloon in Turkey helps the patient feel full after eating small portions of food. A person will lose weight without feeling hungry. The cost of a gastric balloon is lower than laparoscopic gastric reduction surgery in Turkey. If necessary, the procedure can be repeated.

How is intragastric balloon installation performed in Turkey?

Intragastric ballooning is performed using endoscopy under local anesthesia. In exceptional cases, at the request of the patient, general anesthesia can be used. The entire procedure takes about 30 minutes.

First, the surgeon inserts an endoscope, a device with a flexible tube and camera, into the patient’s esophagus through the mouth. He carefully examines the stomach to make sure there are no contraindications for the procedure. Then the doctor, without removing the endoscope, installs an empty balloon and fills it with 400-700 ml of saline solution or inflates it with nitrogen.

The patient is transferred to the ward. The condition of the patient is monitored by medical staff. After 3-4 hours, most people return to the hotel; in rare cases, overnight hospitalization may be required.

Who can benefit from an intragastric balloon in Turkey?

Candidates for gastric ballooning are patients who:

  • are over 18 years old;
  • have a BMI between 25 and 35;
  • are ready to change lifestyle and eating habits.

An intragastric balloon in Turkey is the best option for those people who are not ready for radical weight loss surgery with stomach reduction. Some patients with significant obesity are offered intragastric ballooning as a preparatory step before further bariatric surgery.

In what cases should a intragastric balloon not be installed in Turkey?

gastric balloon in Turkey: contraindicationsDespite the fact that ballooning along with intragastric banding are minimally invasive procedures with low risks, they have a number of contraindications, including:

  • eating disorder;
  • serious diseases of the lungs, liver, kidneys;
  • hiatus hernia;
  • stomach ulcer, Crohn’s disease;
  • pregnancy and lactation;
  • alcohol addiction.

Also, a gastric balloon in Turkey is not indicated for patients who have previously undergone radical bariatric surgery.

What types of intragastric balloon are there in Turkey?

Turkish bariatric specialists use different types of intragastric balloons made of silicone or polyurethane. Installation for 6 months or a year is offered for patients. The most popular options in Turkey include:

  1. 6-month silicone models filled with saline solution. These include single-balloon options Spatz3, Orbera, and the double-balloon ReShape system.
  2. Swallowable tablet Obalon.

The type of intragastric ballooning depends on the patient’s needs.

Intragastric balloon in tablets, Turkey: how does it work?

Intragastric balloon in tablets, TurkeyRecently, patients have been looking for information on the request for intragastric balloon tablets Turkey. This is about the Elipse model, which is called a “smart balloon”.

Intragastric balloon in tablet form is the least invasive bariatric procedure in Turkey. The patient swallows a capsule, to which a thin cable is attached, and washes it down with plenty of water. After entering the stomach, the tablet is inflated into a ball, after which the doctor disconnects the cable. The process is controlled by an X-ray system.

Intragastric balloon in tablets, which is actively used in Turkey, is in demand among patients from abroad. It decreases in size on its own over several months and is eliminated naturally from the body. You do not need to visit a doctor to remove it. Upon request of intragastric balloon tablets in Turkey, coordinators of Experts Medical will provide the best options in terms of quality and cost.

Gastric balloon in Turkey: what preparation is needed?

To eliminate possible postoperative risks, bariatric surgeons recommend that patients adhere to certain rules before the procedure:

  • do not eat solid food for 24 hours;
  • do not take liquids for 12 hours.

Preoperative examination may include abdominal ultrasound, ECG, x-ray, laboratory blood and urine tests.

Can an intragastric balloon burst?

Violation of the integrity of the intragastric device is extremely rare – less than 1 case in 1,000. The risk of rupture increases if the ball is in the stomach for longer than the prescribed time. You can tell that the balloon has burst if your urine has a greenish or bluish tint. In this case, you must urgently consult a doctor to remove it endoscopically.

How does weight loss occur after an intragastric balloon?

People who have undergone the intragastric balloon procedure in Turkey have reported weight loss of up to 40-45 pounds (18-20 kg). The greatest effect of the procedure will be obtained if you strictly follow the recommendations of Turkish nutritionists. You will also need to do physical exercise.

Will you feel stomach discomfort?

Unpleasant sensations are possible in the first few days after the installation of an intragastric balloon in Turkey. In rare cases, patients report abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting.

After the stomach gets used to the intragastric ball, unpleasant reactions go away, the person feels full after small portions of food.

How long does it take to recover from intragastric balloon installation in Turkey?

The rehabilitation period after the installation of an intragastric balloon is much shorter than after radical bariatric surgery procedures. For example, after intragastric sleeve surgery in Turkey or intragastric bypass surgery in Turkey, rehabilitation takes about 2 weeks.

The patient’s recovery after ballooning in Turkey usually lasts no more than 3 days. Doctors recommend resting during this period. Then you can return home and lead a normal life.

 

How will nutrition change after the installation of an intragastric balloon?

For the first three days, the patient consumes liquid food in the form of broths, juices, pureed soups, and jellies. Nutritionists recommend eating small portions and avoiding coffee, carbonated drinks, and ice cream. You can gradually introduce solid foods, starting with cereals, fruit purees, and thick soups.

Turkish nutritionists advise patients to keep a food diary to monitor their well-being.

Intragastric balloon Turkey: price

Gastric balloon Turkey: priceThe cost of installing a gastric balloon in Turkey varies between $1700-4500. Medical centers offer comprehensive package deals to patients at an affordable gastric balloon price. They include necessary medical and non-medical services:    

  • consultation with a bariatric surgeon and nutritionist, including in text or video format;
  • preoperative tests;
  • intragastric ballooning;
  • sedation or anesthesia, medications;
  • transfer from the airport and back;
  • accommodation in a 4 or 5 star hotel;
  • translator.

Coordinators-doctors of Experts Medical will tell you in more detail about the features of the procedure and will tell you the best price for an intragastric balloon in Turkey.

What procedures can be combined with an intragastric balloon in Turkey?

Gastric ballooning, like gastric botox in Turkey, is a non-invasive procedure and does not require hospitalization. Therefore, many patients plan in advance to install a gastric balloon in Turkey and additional procedures to improve their appearance. In Turkish clinics, specialists provide foreign patients with a wide selection of various procedures in the field of plastic surgery, cosmetology, and dentistry. The quality of work of Turkish specialists is known all over the world while the cost of services is affordable for many.

Patients in reviews of the treatment of obesity with an intragastric balloon recommend taking advantage of the chance provided by Turkish specialists. They help restore attractiveness and self-confidence.

Coordinators of Experts Medical will fully undertake the comprehensive organization of a trip to an intragastric balloon in Istanbul or any other city in Turkey, taking into account the needs of the patient and accompanying person.

Intragastric Balloon: Istanbul

Istanbul is the most popular destination for bariatric surgery in Turkey, including gastric balloon placement. Leading medical centers accredited by the prestigious international commission JCI are located here. This guarantees patients medical care and service according to international standards, security, and confidentiality.

Gastric balloon: IstanbulAmong the best options to get a gastric balloon installed in Istanbul are:

  1. Specialized medical center for bariatric and plastic surgery NoveMed. Patients can use the services of the best bariatric specialists and get advice from leading plastic surgeons.
  2. Khizar Multispeciality Hospital. Experienced bariatric surgeons practice here, each of whom performs over 1,000 procedures annually. Wide selection of package offers for various weight loss procedures. They are performed by Dr. Burchin Batman who specializes in obesity surgery.
  3. Anadolu Medical Center. It is in particular demand among patients from abroad. The most technically equipped hospital that provides premium service. Foreign patients are operated on by world-class specialists, including experienced surgeons Kemal Rasha and Ibrahim Cenk Sogukpinar. People from many countries specially come to them.

Coordinators of Experts Medical have prepared detailed information about the leading medical centers in Istanbul and the best intragastric balloon installation specialists.

Reviews of Intragastric Balloon in Turkey

Patients who contacted Turkish bariatric surgeons for gastric balloon installation note the following advantages in their reviews:

  • Reviews of gastric balloon in Turkeyprofessionalism of doctors;
  • VIP service in clinics;
  • affordable price of the gastric balloon in Turkey;
  • individually developed recommendations for further nutrition, taking into account the characteristics of the body;
  • no complications and quick recovery;
  • long-term weight loss and satisfaction from beautiful body contours;
  • reduction of symptoms of chronic diseases, and in some cases – recovery;
  • lifelong support after intragastric balloon surgery in Istanbul or another city in Turkey.

Patients in their reviews note the beautiful nature and pleasant climate. Thanks to this, they were able to combine the treatment of obesity using the intragastric balloon method and relax comfortably in Turkey.

Intragastric balloon in Turkey: how to go?

The trip to bariatric surgery in Turkey is organized by the coordinators-doctors of Experts Medical. The company has extensive experience in the field of medical tourism and interacts with trusted clinics in Turkey. Foreign patients can choose from experienced bariatric surgeons with positive reviews of gastric balloon placement.

The patient can count on:

  • free consultation and best price offer for the gastric balloon in Turkey;
  • preparation of medical documents;
  • booking air tickets and a room in a good hotel for a patient and an accompanying person;
  • VIP transfer from the airport and back;
  • translation services;
  • organization of comprehensive programs for health improvement and improvement of appearance.

Each patient is provided with a personal curator for the entire period of stay in Turkey for the procedure for installing a gastric balloon, which will ensure comfort and safety.

Help in treatment payment
We help with paperwork and communication with charitable foundations. Our patients have already received help in the amount of $1,4 mln since 2018.
Payment for treatment only to the clinic
All payment for treatment is done to the clinic after the patient's arrival. There are no overpayments.
Only verified doctors
We apply strict criteria for the selection of foreign doctors so that our patients are treated only by highly qualified doctors
Quick help
We will provide complete treatment arrangement in 3 hours in urgent cases
We are always in touch with patients
Caring support 24/7 at all treatment stages and during recovery.
The information on the page is provided for informational purposes only. It is not a guide to action and should not be considered as medical advice or recommendations for treatment from experts-medical.com. All decisions about the choice of treatment methods and medical care should be made only by a specialized doctor after examining the patient's medical situation.